छत्रपति संभाजी राजे भोसले son of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

छत्रपति संभाजी राजे भोसले


Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj


छत्रपती संभाजी राजे ( छत्रपति संभाजी राजे भोसले) या शम्भाजी (१६५७-१६८९) मराठा सम्राट और छत्रपति शिवाजी महाराज के उत्तराधिकारी। उस समय मराठाओं के सबसे प्रबल शत्रु मुगल बादशाह औरंगजेब बीजापुर और गोलकुण्डा का शासन हिन्दुस्तान से समाप्त करने में उनकी प्रमुख भूमिका रही। संभाजी राजे अपनी शौर्यता के लिये काफी प्रसिद्ध थे। संभाजी महाराज ने अपने कम समय के शासन काल में १२० युद्ध किये और इसमे एक प्रमुख बात ये थी कि उनकी सेना एक भी युद्ध में पराभूत नहीं हुई। उनके पराक्रम की वजह से परेशान हो कर दिल्ली के बादशाह औरंगजेब ने कसम खायी थी के जब तक छत्रपती संभाजी पकडे नहीं जायेंगे, वो अपना किमोंश सर पर नहीं चढ़ाएगा।

परिचय
छत्रपति संभाजी नौ वर्ष की अवस्था में पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपती श्री छत्रपति शिवाजी महाराज की प्रसिद्ध आगरा यात्रा में वे साथ गये थे। औरंगजेब के बंदीगृह से निकल, पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपती श्री छत्रपति शिवाजी महाराज के महाराष्ट्र वापस लौटने पर, मुगलों से समझौते के फलस्वरूप, संभाजी मुगल सम्राट् द्वारा राजा के पद तथा पंचहजारी मंसब से विभूषित हुए। औरंगाबाद की मुगल छावनी में, मराठा सेना के साथ, उसकी नियुक्ति हुई (१६६८)। युगप्रवर्तक राजा के पुत्र रहते उनको यह नौकरी मान्य नहीं थी। किन्तु हिन्दवी स्वराज्य स्थापना की शुरू के दिन होने के कारण और पिता पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपती श्री शिवाजी महाराज के आदेश के पालन हेतु केवल ९ साल के उम्र में ही इतना जिम्मेदारी का लेकिन अपमान जनक कार्य उन्होंने धीरज से किया। उन्होंने अपने उम्र के केवल १४ साल में उन्होंने बुधाभुषणम, नखशिख, नायिकाभेद तथा सातशातक यह तीन संस्कृत ग्रंथ लिखे थे। पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपति श्री शिवाजी महाराज के राज्याभिषेक और हिन्दु स्वराज्य के बाद स्थापित अष्टप्रधान मंत्रिमंडल में से कुछ लोगों की राजकारण के वजह से यह संवेदनशील युवराज काफी क्षतिग्रस्त हुए थे। पराक्रमी होने के बावजूद उन्हें अनेक लड़ाईयोंसे दूर रखा गया। स्वभावत: संवेदनशील रहनेवाले संभाजी राजे उनके पिता शिवाजी महाराज जी के आज्ञा अनुसार मूघालो को जा मिले ताकी वे उन्हे गुमराह कर सके।क्यूँ कि उसी समय मराठा सेना दक्षिण दिशा के दिग्विजय से लौटी थी और उन्हे फिर से जोश में आने के लिये समय चाहिये था। इसलीये मूघालो को गुमराह करणे के लिये पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपती श्री शिवाजी महाराज जी ने हि उन्हे भेज था वह एक राजतंत्र था।बाद में छत्रपती श्री शिवाजी महाराज जी ने हि उन्हे मूघालो से मुक्त किया।मगर इस प्रयास में वो पत्नी रानी दुर्गाबाई और बहेन गोदावरी उनको अपने साथ लेन में असफल रहे।

पुण्यश्लोक छत्रपति शिवाजी श्री महाराज की मृत्यु (३ एप्रिल १६८०) के बाद कुछ लोगों ने धर्मवीर छात्रपती श्री संभाजी महाराज के अनुज राजाराम को सिंहासनासीन करने का प्रयत्न किया। किन्तु सेनापति मोहिते के रहते यह कारस्थान नाकामयाब हुआ और १० जनवरी १६८१ को संभाजी महाराज का विधिवत्‌ राज्याभिषेक हुआ। इसी वर्ष औरंगजेब के विद्रोही पुत्र अकबर ने दक्षिण भाग कर धर्मवीर छात्रपती श्री संभाजी महाराज का आश्रय ग्रहण किया। अकेले मुग़ल, पोर्तुगीज, अंग्रेज़ तथा अन्य शत्रुओं के साथ लड़ने के साथ ही उन्हें अंतर्गत शत्रुओंसे भी लड़ना पड़ा। राजाराम को छत्रपति बनाने में असफल रहने वाले राजाराम समर्थकोने औरंगजेब के पुत्र अकबर से राज्य पर आक्रमण कर के उसे मुग़ल साम्राज्य का अंकित बनाने की गुजारिश करने वाला पत्र लिखा। किन्तु धर्मवीर छत्रपति श्री संभाजी महाराज के पराक्रम से परिचित और उनका आश्रित होने के कारण अकबर ने वह पत्र छत्रपति संभाजी को भेज दिया। इस राजद्रोह से क्रोधित छत्रपति श्रीसंभाजी महाराज ने अपने सामंतो को मृत्युदंड दिया। तथापि उन में से एक बालाजी आवजी नामक सामंत की समाधी भी उन्होंने बनायीं जिनके माफ़ी का पत्र छत्रपति संभाजी को उन सामंत के मृत्यु पश्चात मिला।

१६८३ में उसने पुर्तगालियों को पराजित किया। इसी समय वह किसी राजकीय कारण से संगमेश्वर में रहे थे। जिस दिन वो रायगड के लिए प्रस्थान करने वाले थे उसी दिन कुछ ग्रामास्थो ने अपनी समस्या उन्हें अर्जित करनी चाही। जिसके चलते छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज ने अपने साथ केवल २०० सैनिक रख के बाकि सेना को रायगड भेज दिया। उसी वक्त उनके एक फितूर जिनको उन्होंने वतनदारी देने से इन्कार किया था, मुग़ल सरदार मुकरब खान के साथ गुप्त रास्ते से ५००० के फ़ौज के साथ वहां पहुंचे। यह वह रास्ता था जो सिर्फ मराठों को पता था। इसलिए संभाजी महाराज को कभी नहीं लगा था के शत्रु इस और से आ सकेगा। उन्होंने लड़ने का प्रयास किया किन्तु इतनी बड़ी फ़ौज के सामने २०० सैनिकों का प्रतिकार काम कर न पाया और अपने मित्र तथा एकमात्र सलाहकार कविकलश के साथ वह बंदी बना लिए गए (१ फरबरी, १६८९)।

औरंगजेब ने दोनों की जुबान कटवा दी, आँखें निकाल दि। ११ मार्च १६८९ हिन्दू नववर्ष दिन को दोनों के शरीर के टुकडे कर के औरंगजेब ने हत्या कर दी। किन्तु ऐसा कहते हैं कि हत्या पूर्व औरंगजेब ने छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज से कहा के मेरे ४ पुत्रों में से एक भी तुम्हारे जैसा होता तो सारा हिन्दुस्थान कब का मुग़ल सल्तनत में समाया होता। जब छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज के टुकडे तुलापुर की नदी में फेंकें गए तो उस किनारे रहने वाले लोगों ने वो इकठ्ठा कर के सिला के जोड़ दिए (इन लोगों को आज " शिवले " इस नाम से जाना जाता है) जिस के उपरांत उनका विधिपूर्वक अंत्यसंस्कार किया। औरंगजेब ने सोचा था की मराठी साम्राज्य छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज के मृत्यु पश्चात ख़त्म हो जाएगा। छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज के हत्या की वजह से सारे मराठा एक साथ आकर लड़ने लगे। अत: औरंगजेब को दक्खन में ही प्राणत्याग करना पड़ा। उसका दक्खन जीतने का सपना इसी भूमि में दफन हो गया।

इतने बड़े साहसी और उत्तम शासक होने के बावजूद कम जानकारी के कारण उनका चरित्र एक चरित्रहीन तथा व्यसनी राजा का दिखाया गया है। यह काफी अचम्भे की बात है के छत्रपति संभाजी महाराज के बारे में लिखी गयी बाते ये उनके मृत्यु के पश्चात १०० साल गुजरने पर लिखी गयी, संभाजी महाराज और औरंगजेब का संघर्ष सत्ता का संघर्ष था। धर्मवीर छात्रपती श्री संभाजी महाराज का ये बलिदान और उनको पीडा देने का काम मुघलोंने औरंगजेब के कहने पर एक महिने तक चालु रखा और उनको महिनाभर तडपाते रहे और आखिर में उनके शरीर के पैरों से लेकर गर्दन तक तुकडे तुकडे करके मार डाला| ये सब होने से पहले क्रुरकर्मा और धर्मांध औरंग ने उन्हें अपना हिन्दुधर्म त्याग कर मुघलोंका मुस्लिम धर्म अपनानें की मांग रखी थी लेकिन युगप्रवर्तक हिन्दु राजा छत्रपती श्री शिवाजीराजें का बेटा और अपने हिन्दु धर्मपर पुरी निष्ठा और श्रध्दा रखनेंवासे धर्मवीर छत्रपती श्री संभाजीराजेंने ये मांग धुडका दी और इस्लाम का स्विकार कतई न करनें का निश्चय औरंग को बता दिया था| इससें क्रोध में आकर औरंगजेब ने उनको पुरा महिनाभर तडपा तडपा के मारा था| ये पुरा महिना ॥श्री शिवप्रतिष्ठान हिन्दुस्थान॥ नामक संघटन की और से पुरे भारत देश मे जहा जहा इस संघटन का काम है वहा वहा इस धर्मवीर छत्रपती श्री संभाजीराजें के श्रध्दांजली का पुरे तौर पर पालन किया जाता है| उसे ॥धर्मवीर बलिदान मास॥ कहते है| जिस में श्री संभाजी महाराज को पकडने के समय सें उनका बलिदान होने तक का पुरा महिना होता है और ये बलिदान मास जो पुरा महिनाभर चलता है जिसमे ये सब लोग श्रध्दांजली के रुप में अपनी चहेती कोईभी एक चीज, उदाहरण के तौर पें चाय पिना, मीठा खाना, मुंडन करना, पैरों मे चप्पल न पहनना, दिन में एक बार ही खाना, व्यसन है तो उसको त्याग देना, खुशी न मनाना, टेलिव्हिजन देखनाइ.छोड देते है| उसका पुरा त्याग कर देते है| और हिन्दुसमाज के उपर धर्मवीर श्री संभाजी महाराज के अनंत उपकार होने हेतु पुरे हिन्दु समाज को भी ये बलिदान मास श्री संभाजी महाराज को श्रध्दांजली के तौर पे पालन करने की विनती भी करते है|


Sambhaji (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the second ruler of the Maratha Empire. He was the eldest son of Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire and his first wife Saibai. He was successor of the realm after his father's death, and ruled it for 9 years. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and Mughal Empire as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. In 1689, Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals,and succeeded by his brother Rajaram I.

Early life
Sambhaji was born at Purandar fort to Saibai, Shivaji's first wife. His mother died when he was two years old and he was raised by his paternal grandmother Jijabai. At the age of nine, Sambhaji was sent to live with Raja Jai Singh I of Amber as a political hostage to ensure compliance of the Treaty of Purandar that Shivaji had signed with the Mughals on June 11, 1665. As a result of the treaty, Sambhaji became a Mughal sardar and served the Mughal court of Aurangzeb, and the father and son duo fought along the Mughals against Bijapur. He and his father Shivaji presented themselves at Aurangzeb's court at Agra on May 12, 1666. Aurangzeb put both of them under house arrest but they escaped on July 22, 1666.

Marriage
Sambhaji was married to Rajau in a marriage of political alliance; per Maratha custom she took the name Yesubai. Jivabai was the daughter of Pilajirao Shirke, who had entered Shivaji's service following the defeat of a powerful Deshmukh Rao Rana Suryajirao Surve who was his previous patron. This marriage thus gave Shivaji access to the Konkan coastal belt.

Sambhaji's behaviour, including alleged irresponsibility and addiction to sensual pleasures led Shivaji to imprison his son at Panhala fort in 1678 to curb his behaviour.Sambhaji escaped from the fort with his wife and defected to the Mughals in December 1678 for a year but then returned home when he learnt of a plan by Dilir Khan, the Mughal viceroy of Deccan to arrest him and send him to Delhi.Upon returning home, Sambhaji was unrepentant and was again confined to Panhala.

Accession
When Shivaji died in the first week of April 1680, Sambhaji was still held captive at Panhala fort. Shivaji's widow and Sambhaji's stepmother, Soyrabai after her husband's death installed the couple's son, Rajaram on the throne on April 21, 1680 Upon hearing this news, Sambhaji plotted his escape and took possession of the Panhala fort on April 27 after killing the fort commander. On June 18, he acquired control of Raigad fort. Sambhaji formally ascended the throne on July 20, 1680. Rajaram, his wife Janki Bai and mother Soyarabai were imprisoned. kinsman from the Shirke family and some of Shivaji's ministers such as Annaji Datto were executed on charges of conspiracy.

Military expeditions and conflicts
Attack on Burhanpur
Sambhaji plundered and ravaged Burhanpur in 1680. His forces completely routed the Mughal garrison and punitively executed captives. The Marathas then looted the city and set its ports ablaze. Sambhaji then withdrew into Baglana, evading the forces of Mughal commander Khan Jahan Bahadur.During the attack on Burhanpur, among his 20,000 troops, many of them perpetrated atrocities against Muslims, including plunder, killing, and torture.

Mughal Empire
Main article: Maratha War of Independence

Statue of Sambhaji at Tulapur
In 1682, the Mughals laid siege to the Maratha fort of Ramsej, but after five months of failed attempts, including planting explosive mines and building wooden towers to gain the walls, the Mughal siege failed.

Siddis of Janjira
Entering the 1680s, the Marathas came into conflict with the Siddis, who were Muslim of African descent settled in India who held the fortified island of Janjira. At the start of 1682, a Maratha army later joined by Sambhaji personally, attacked the island for thirty days, doing heavy damage but failing to breach its defenses. Sambhaji then attempted a ruse, sending a party of his people to the Siddis, claiming to be defectors. They were allowed into the fort and planned to detonate the gunpowder magazine during a coming Maratha attack. However, one of the female defectors became involved with a Siddi man and he uncovered the plot and the infiltrators were executed. The Maratha then attempted to build a stone causeway from the shore to the island, but were interrupted halfway through when the Mughal army moved to menace Raigad. Sambhaji returned to counter them and his remaining troops were unable to overcome the Janjira garrison and the Siddi fleet protecting it.

Portuguese and English
Having failed to take Janjira in 1682, Sambhaji sent a commander to seize the coastal fort of Anjadiva instead. The Marathas seized the fort, seeking to turn it into a naval base, but in April 1682 were ejected from the fort by a detachment of 200 Portuguese. This incident led to a larger conflict between the two regional powers.

The Portuguese colony of Goa at that time provided supplies to the Mughals, allowed them to use the Portuguese ports in India and pass through their territory. In order to deny this support to the Mughals, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against Portuguese Goa in late 1683 storming the colony and taking its forts, while local Goans uprose against the Europeans.The situation for the colonists became so dire that the Portuguese viceroy, Francisco de Távora, conde de Alvor went with his remaining supporters to the cathedral where the crypt of Saint Francis Xavier was kept, where they prayed for deliverance. The viceroy had the casket opened and gave the saint's body his baton, royal credentials and a letter asking the saint's support. Sambhaji's Goa campaign was checked by the arrival of the Mughal army and navy in January 1684, forcing him to withdraw.

Meanwhile, in 1684 Sambhaji signed a defensive treaty with the English at Bombay, realising his need for English arms and gunpowder, particularly as their lack of artillery and explosives impeded the Maratha's ability to lay siege to fortifications. Thus reinforced, Sambhaji proceeded to take Pratapgad and a series of forts along the Ghats.

Mysore
Much like his father Shivaji's Karnataka campaign, Sambhaji attempted in 1681 to invade Mysore, then a southern principality ruled by Wodeyar Chikkadevaraja. Sambhaji's large army was repelled,as had happened to Shivaji in 1675.The Chikkadevraja later made treaties and rendered tribute to the Maratha kingdom during the conflicts of 1682–1686. The Chikkadevraja however began to draw close to the Mughal empire and ceased to follow his treaties with the Marathas. In response, Sambhaji invaded Mysore in 1686, accompanied by his Brahmin friend and poet Kavi Kalash.

Capture and execution

Stone arch at Tulapur confluence where Sambhaji was executed
The 1687 Battle of Wai saw the Maratha forces badly weakened by the Mughals. The key Maratha commander Hambirao Mohite was killed and troops began to desert the Maratha armies. Sambhaji's positions were spied upon by his own relations, the Shirke family, who had defected to the Mughals. Sambhaji and 25 of his advisors were captured by the Mughal forces of Muqarrab Khan in a skirmish at Sangameshwar in February 1689 .

Accounts of Sambhaji's confrontation with the Mughal ruler and following torture, execution and disposal of his body, vary widely depending on the source, though generally all agree that he was tortured and executed on the emperor's orders.

The captured Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad, where Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes and they were subjected to insults by Mughal soldiers. Accounts vary as to the reasons for what came next: Mughal accounts state that Sambhaji was asked to surrender his forts, treasures and names of Mughal collaborators with the Marathas and that he sealed his fate by insulting both the emperor and the Islamic prophet Muhammad during interrogation and was executed for having killed Muslims.The ulema of the Mughal Empire sentenced Sambhaji to death for the atrocities his troops perpetrated against Muslims in Burhanpur, including plunder, killing, rape, and torture.

Maratha accounts instead state that he was ordered to bow before Auguranzeb and convert to Islam and it was his refusal to do so, by saying that he would accept Islam on the day the emperor presented him his daughter's hand, that led to his death.By doing so he earned the title of Dharmaveer ("protector of dharma").Aurangzeb ordered Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death; the process took over a fortnight and included plucking out their eyes and tongue, pulling out their nails and removing their skin. Sambhaji was finally killed on March 11, 1689,reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with wagh nakhe(metal "tiger claws") and beheading with an axe at Tulapur on the banks of the Bhima river near Pune.

Other accounts state that Sambhaji challenged Aurangzeb in open court and refused to convert to Islam. Dennis Kincaid writes, "He (Sambhaji) was ordered by the Emperor to embrace Islam. He refused and was made to run the gauntlet of the whole Imperial army. Tattered and bleeding he was brought before the Emperor and repeated his refusal. His tongue was torn and again the question was put. He called for writing material and wrote 'Not even if the emperor bribed me with his daughter!' So then he was put to death by torture".

Some accounts state that Sambhaji's body was cut into pieces and thrown into the river or that the body or portions were recaptured and cremated at the confluence of rivers at Tulapur.Other accounts state that Sambhaji's remains were fed to the dogs.

Succession
The Maratha Kingdom was put into disarray by Sambhaji's death and his younger half-brother Rajaram Chhatrapati assumed the throne. Rajaram shifted the Maratha capital far south to Jinji (in present day Indian state of [Tamilnadu]), while Maratha guerrilla fighters under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav continued to harass the Mughal army. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad Fort fell to the Mughals, Sambhaji's widow, Yesubai, son, Shahu and Shivaji's widow, Sakvarbai were captured. Sakvarbai died in Mughal captivity.Shahu, who was seven years of age when captured, remained prisoner of the Mughals for 18 years from February 1689 until Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707. Shahu was then set free by Emperor Muhammad Azam Shah, son of Aurangzeb. After his release Shahu had to fight a brief war with his aunt Tarabai, Rajaram's widow who claimed the throne for her own son, Shivaji II.The Mughals kept Yesubai captive to ensure that Shahu adhered to the terms of his release. She was released in 1719 when Marathas became strong enough under Shahu and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath.


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